Suchprofil: Gender_wage_gap
Durchsuchter Fertigstellungsmonat: 02/19



   Journal= {The Review of Economic Studies},
   Volume= {86},
   Number= {1},
   Author= {Marianne Bertrand and Sandra E. Black and Sissel Jensen and Adriana Lleras-Muney},
   Title= {Breaking the glass ceiling? : the effect of board quotas on female labor market outcomes in Norway},
   Year= {2019},
   Pages= {191-239},
   ISBN= {ISSN 0034-6527},
   Abstract= {"In late 2003, Norway passed a law mandating 40% representation of each gender on the board of public limited liability companies. The primary objective of this reform was to increase the representation of women in top positions in the corporate sector and decrease the gender disparity in earnings within that sector. We document that the women appointed to these boards post-reform were observably more qualified than their female predecessors along many dimensions, and that the gender gap in earnings within boards fell substantially. However, we see no robust evidence that the reform benefited the larger set of women employed in the companies subject to the quota. Moreover, the reform had no clear impact on highly qualified women whose qualifications mirror those of board members but who were not appointed to boards. Finally, we find mixed support for the view that the reform affected the decisions of young women. While the reform was not accompanied by any change in female enrollment in business education programmes, we do see some improvements in labour market outcomes for young women with graduate business degrees in their early career stages; however, we observe similar improvements for young women with graduate science degrees, suggesting this may not be due to the reform. Overall, seven years after the board quota policy fully came into effect, we conclude that it had very little discernible impact on women in business beyond its direct effect on the women who made it into boardrooms." (Author's abstract, IAB-Doku) ((en))},
   Annote= {Schlagwörter: Führungskräfte; Quotierung - Auswirkungen; Berufserfolg; beruflicher Aufstieg; erwerbstätige Frauen; Aktiengesellschaft; Aufsichtsrat; Vorstand; Geschlechterverteilung; Lohnunterschied; geschlechtsspezifische Faktoren; Norwegen; },
   Annote= {Bezugszeitraum: A 1999; E 2014},
   Annote= {JEL-Klassifikation: J24; J3; J7; J78},
   Annote= {Sprache: en},
   Annote= {IAB-Sign.: Z 060},
   Annote= {Quelle: IAB, SB Dokumentation und Bibliothek, LitDokAB, k190206v11},

   Journal= {The British journal of sociology},
   Volume= {70},
   Number= {1},
   Author= {Malcolm Brynin and Simonetta Longhi and Wouter Zwysen},
   Title= {The diversification of inequality},
   Year= {2019},
   Pages= {70-89},
   ISBN= {ISSN 0007-1315},
   Abstract= {"We examine intersectionality on the basis of increasingly complex interactions between gender and ethnic groups, which we argue derive from the growing diversity of these groups. While we critique the concept of superdiversity, we suggest that increased diversity leads to a 'diversification of inequality'. This is characterised by an increasing incidence of inequality through the growth in migration and of the size and variety of ethnic minorities, and by a weakening of specific inequalities. We demonstrate this using the Labour Force Survey and conclude that there is a clear diversification of inequality but also that ethnicity is a more potent source of inequality than gender. Diversity also increases the reach of inequality through producing and increasing the number of intersections." (Author's abstract, Published by arrangement with John Wiley & Sons) ((en))},
   Annote= {Schlagwörter: soziale Ungleichheit; soziale Differenzierung; geschlechtsspezifische Faktoren; ethnische Gruppe; Heterogenität; Einwanderung - Auswirkungen; Frauen; Lohnunterschied; Lohndiskriminierung; Farbige; Weiße; Asiate; Lateinamerikaner; Einwanderer; Männer; Afrikaner; Großbritannien; },
   Annote= {Bezugszeitraum: A 1993; E 2014},
   Annote= {Sprache: en},
   Annote= {IAB-Sign.: Z 012},
   Annote= {Quelle: IAB, SB Dokumentation und Bibliothek, LitDokAB, k190211v19},

   Journal= {European journal of industrial relations},
   Number= {online first},
   Author= {Ewa Cukrowska-Torzewska and Iga Magda},
   Title= {The gender wage gap in the workplace: Does the age of the firm matter?},
   Year= {2019},
   Pages= {15},
   ISBN= {ISSN 0959-6801},
   Abstract= {"We contribute to the literature on firm-level determinants of gender wage inequality by studying the link between a firm's age and the size of its gender pay gap. Using European Structure of Earnings data for eight European countries, we find that in all these countries, the gender wage gaps are smallest in the youngest firms. Our results also show that in Central European countries, the size of the gender pay gap clearly increases with the age of the company; whereas in the older EU member states such link is not as apparent. Levels of gender wage inequality appear to be highest in companies that were previously state owned but were privatized during the transition. We interpret our findings with the support of competition and monopsony theories." (Author's abstract, IAB-Doku) ((en))},
   Annote= {Schlagwörter: Lohnunterschied - internationaler Vergleich; Unternehmensalter - Auswirkungen; geschlechtsspezifische Faktoren; Lohndiskriminierung; erwerbstätige Frauen; erwerbstätige Männer; Tschechische Republik; Ungarn; Polen; Slowakei; },
   Annote= {Bezugszeitraum: A 2010; E 2010},
   Annote= {Sprache: en},
   Annote= {IAB-Sign.: Z 1178},
   Annote= {Quelle: IAB, SB Dokumentation und Bibliothek, LitDokAB, k190205v19},

   Journal= {Canadian Studies in Population},
   Volume= {43},
   Number= {3/4},
   Author= {Nicole Denier and Sean Waite},
   Title= {Data and discrimination: A research note on sexual orientation in the Canadian labour market},
   Year= {2016},
   Pages= {264-271},
   ISBN= {ISSN 0380-1489},
   Abstract= {"Growing interest in the labour market outcomes of sexual minorities presents novel methodological and theoretical challenges. In this note, we outline important challenges in the study of wage inequality between sexual minorities and heterosexuals in Canada. We discuss the current state of available data on sexual orientation and economic outcomes in Canada, and further evaluate how estimates of sexual orientation wage gaps differ across earnings definition and sample composition. Our analysis of the 2006 Census shows considerable heterogeneity in point estimates of wage disadvantage across definitions of earnings and sample selections; however, all estimates show that gay men suffer labour market penalties and lesbians experience wage premiums." (Author's abstract, IAB-Doku) ((en))},
   Annote= {Schlagwörter: Homosexualität; Diskriminierung; Einkommenseffekte; Beschäftigungseffekte; Lohnunterschied; geschlechtsspezifische Faktoren; erwerbstätige Frauen; erwerbstätige Männer; Lohndiskriminierung; Arbeitsmarktforschung; Datenqualität; Kanada; },
   Annote= {Bezugszeitraum: A 2006; E 2016},
   Annote= {Sprache: en},
   Annote= {IAB-Sign.: X 687},
   Annote= {Quelle: IAB, SB Dokumentation und Bibliothek, LitDokAB, k190206v17},

   Journal= {Labour Economics},
   Volume= {56},
   Number= {January},
   Author= {Yana Gallen and Rune V. Lesner and Rune Vejlin},
   Title= {The labor market gender gap in Denmark : sorting out the past 30 years},
   Year= {2019},
   Pages= {58-67},
   ISBN= {ISSN 0927-5371},
   Abstract= {"We document the declining gap between the average earnings of women and men in Denmark from 1980 to 2010. The decline in the earnings gap is driven by increases in hours worked by women as well as a decline in the gender wage gap. The data show a great deal of segregation across education tracks, occupations, and even workplaces, but this segregation has declined since 1980. These changes in segregation have been accompanied by a reduction in the role of observables in explaining the gender wage gap. The residual gender wage gap has been constant since 1980. The hours gap is not affected by changes in segregation at the occupation and education level: differences in these characteristics for women relative to men do not contribute to the hours gap in 2010 and they did not in 1980. However, a firm-worker fixed effects analysis suggests that 30 percent of the gender hours gap can be explained by the sorting of women into lower-hours workplaces. The hours gap is driven by mothers, the group for whom differences in employer, occupation, education, and experience also imply large differences in wages. The combined effect of hours and wages is a more than 20 percent gender earnings gap among well-attached (halftime-plus) workers between 25 and 60 years old, 10 percent of which cannot be explained by differences in hours, or in the readily observable characteristics of these workers." (Author's abstract, © 2018 Elsevier) ((en))},
   Annote= {Schlagwörter: Einkommensunterschied; Erwerbstätigkeit; erwerbstätige Frauen; Arbeitsmarktentwicklung; Frauen; Erwerbsbeteiligung; Familienpolitik; Frauenförderung; Bildungsbeteiligung; berufliche Reintegration; Mütter; individuelle Arbeitszeit; Lohndiskriminierung; Arbeitgeber; Konvergenz; geschlechtsspezifische Faktoren; geschlechtsspezifischer Arbeitsmarkt; Frauenerwerbstätigkeit; Dänemark; },
   Annote= {Bezugszeitraum: A 1980; E 2010},
   Annote= {JEL-Klassifikation: J71; J31},
   Annote= {Sprache: en},
   Annote= {IAB-Sign.: Z 1120},
   Annote= {Quelle: IAB, SB Dokumentation und Bibliothek, LitDokAB, k190221v15},


   Institution={National Bureau of Economic Research, Cambridge (Hrsg.)},
   Author= {David Card and Dean R. Hyslop},
   Title= {Female earnings inequality: The changing role of family characteristics on the extensive and intensive margins},
   Year= {2018},
   Pages= {72},
   Address= {Cambrige, Mass.},
   Series= {NBER working paper},
   Number= {25387},
   Abstract= {"Although women make up nearly half the U.S. workforce, most studies of earnings inequality focus on men. This is at least in part because of the complexity of modeling both the decision to work (i.e., the extensive margin) and the level of earnings conditional on work (the intensive margin). In this paper we document a series of descriptive facts about female earnings inequality using data for three cohorts in the PSID. We show that inequality in annual earnings of women fell sharply between the late 1960s and the mid-1990s, with a particularly large decline in the extensive margin component. We then fit earnings-generating models that incorporate both intensive- and extensive-margin dynamics to data for the three cohorts. Our models suggest that over 80% of the decline in female earnings inequality can be attributed to a weakening of the link between family-based factors (including the number of children of different ages and the presence and incomes of partners) and the intensive and extensive margins of earnings determination." (Author's abstract, IAB-Doku) ((en))},
   Annote= {Schlagwörter: Einkommensunterschied - Determinanten; Frauen; Erwerbsbeteiligung; Lohnhöhe; Lohnunterschied; soziale Faktoren; Familienstand; Kinderzahl; sozioökonomische Faktoren; Partnerschaft; USA; },
   Annote= {Bezugszeitraum: A 1968; E 1997},
   Annote= {JEL-Klassifikation: J22},
   Annote= {Sprache: en},
   Annote= {Quelle: IAB, SB Dokumentation und Bibliothek, LitDokAB, k190130v36},

   Institution={Centre for Economic Policy Research, London (Hrsg.)},
   Author= {Henrik Kleven and Camille Landais and Johanna Posch and Andreas Steinhauer and Josef Zweim{\"u}ller},
   Title= {Child penalties across countries : evidence and explanations},
   Year= {2019},
   Pages= {19},
   Address= {London},
   Series= {CEPR Discussion Paper},
   Number= {13474},
   ISBN= {ISSN 0265-8003},
   Annote= {URL:},
   Abstract= {"This paper provides evidence on child penalties in female and male earnings in different countries. The estimates are based on event studies around the birth of the first child, using the specification proposed by Kleven et al. (2018). The analysis reveals some striking similarities in the qualitative effects of children across countries, but also sharp differences in the magnitude of the effects. We discuss the potential role of family policies (parental leave and child care provision) and gender norms in explaining the observed differences." (Author's abstract, IAB-Doku) ((en))},
   Annote= {Schlagwörter: Mütter; Väter; Lohnunterschied - internationaler Vergleich; Kinderlosigkeit; Lohndiskriminierung; erwerbstätige Frauen; erwerbstätige Männer; institutionelle Faktoren; Familienpolitik; soziale Normen; kulturelle Faktoren; Geschlechterrolle; Elternschaft; Einkommenseffekte; Dänemark; Schweden; Bundesrepublik Deutschland; Österreich; Großbritannien; USA; },
   Annote= {Sprache: en},
   Annote= {Quelle: IAB, SB Dokumentation und Bibliothek, LitDokAB, k190207v23},

   Institution={Forschungsinstitut zur Zukunft der Arbeit (Hrsg.)},
   Author= {Iga Magda and Ewa Cukrowska-Torzewska},
   Title= {Do female managers help to lower within-firm gender pay gaps? : public institutions vs. private enterprises},
   Year= {2018},
   Pages= {27},
   Address= {Bonn},
   Series= {IZA discussion paper},
   Number= {12026},
   Annote= {URL:},
   Abstract= {"We analyze the link between the presence of female managers and the size of the firmlevel gender pay gap, looking separately at the private and public sector. Using a large linked employer-employee dataset for Poland and a non-parametric and parametric decompositions, we find that higher presence of female managers is associated with more pay advantage towards women in selected types of public sector units: the ones in which remunerations of women and men are already equal, and a large share of the workforce is tertiary-educated. The effects are, however, relatively small in size. In private establishments, lower gender wage inequality is associated with higher shares of female workers, but not female managers." (Author's abstract, IAB-Doku) ((en))},
   Annote= {Schlagwörter: Lohnhöhe; Lohnunterschied; geschlechtsspezifische Faktoren; Benachteiligung; erwerbstätige Frauen; erwerbstätige Männer; Führungskräfte - Auswirkungen; Frauen in Einzelberufen; Lohnstruktur; öffentliche Unternehmen; privater Sektor; Polen; },
   Annote= {Bezugszeitraum: A 2012; E 2012},
   Annote= {JEL-Klassifikation: J16; J31; J45},
   Annote= {Sprache: en},
   Annote= {Quelle: IAB, SB Dokumentation und Bibliothek, LitDokAB, k190130v23},

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