Suchprofil: Gender_wage_gap
Durchsuchter Fertigstellungsmonat: 03/12



   Journal= {Journal of Economic Issues},
   Volume= {34},
   Number= {1},
   Author= {Deborah M. Figart},
   Title= {Equal pay for equal work : the role of job evaluation in an evolving social norm},
   Year= {2000},
   Pages= {1-19},
   ISBN= {ISSN 0021-3624},
   Abstract= {"President Clinton received a bipartisan, standing ovation during his 1999 'State of the Union Address,' when he pledged to renew efforts to achieve equal pay for equal work by gender. Many commentators noted that this initiative received the most positive response of any issue mentioned during the address. How did the concept of equal pay for equal work, so controversial throughout much of the twentieth century, become a generalized social norm? This article explores the role of one social practice in institutionalizing equal pay as a standard in wage policy. The widespread institution of job evaluation by industry during and immediately following World War II was an important moment in the history of wage determination. On the one hand, as hinted by the quote above, it opened the door to equal pay for equal work and even equal pay for work of equal value. However, with the door to equal pay ajar, job evaluation came face to face with the pre-existing practice of separate pay scales for men and women. The di ssonance had to be resolved. What follows is a historical snapshot of the development and implementation of job evaluation, including why it became predominant in the 1940s and how, more than two decades prior to the federal Equal Pay Act of 1963, it evolved to erase explicitly separate pay scales by gender and yet, at the same time, reproduced gendered pay practices in new ways." (Author's abstract, IAB-Doku) ((en))},
   Annote= {Schlagwörter: soziale Normen; Lohnunterschied; geschlechtsspezifische Faktoren; soziale Gerechtigkeit; Gleichstellungspolitik; Lohnpolitik; Tätigkeitsmerkmale; Arbeitsbewertung; Lohnfindung; kulturelle Faktoren; Ideologie; institutionelle Faktoren; erwerbstätige Frauen; USA; },
   Annote= {Bezugszeitraum: A 1871; E 1999},
   Annote= {Sprache: en},
   Annote= {IAB-Sign.: X 530},
   Annote= {Quelle: IAB, SB Dokumentation und Bibliothek, LitDokAB, k120224r01},

   Journal= {The Review of Economic Studies},
   Volume= {79},
   Number= {1},
   Author= {George-Levi Gayle and Limor Golan},
   Title= {Mating a dynamic adverse-selection model : labour-force experience and the changing gender earnings gap 1968 - 1997},
   Year= {2012},
   Pages= {227-267},
   ISBN= {ISSN 0034-6527},
   Abstract= {"This paper addresses two questions: What accounts for the gender gap in labour-market outcomes? What are the driving forces behind the changes in the gender labour-market outcomes over the period 1968-1997? It formulates a dynamic general equilibrium model of labour supply, occupational sorting, and human-capital accumulation in which gender discrimination and an earnings gap arise endogenously. It uses this model to quantify the driving forces behind the decline in the gender earnings gap and the increase in female labour-force participation, the proportion of women working in professional occupations, and hours worked. It finds that labour-market experience is the most important factor explaining the gender earnings gap. In addition, statistical discrimination accounts for a large fraction of the observed gender earnings gap and its decline. It also finds that a large increase in aggregate productivity in professional occupations plays a major role in the increase in female labourforce participation, number of hours worked, and the proportion of females working in professional occupations. Although of less importance, demographic changes account for a substantial part of the increase in female labour-force participation and hours worked, whereas home production technology shocks do not." (Author's abstract, IAB-Doku) ((en))},
   Annote= {Schlagwörter: Lohnunterschied - Entwicklung; geschlechtsspezifische Faktoren; erwerbstätige Frauen; erwerbstätige Männer; Lohndiskriminierung; Berufserfahrung; Arbeitskräfteangebot; Humankapital; Berufswahl; Frauenerwerbstätigkeit; Lohnunterschied - Ursache; USA; },
   Annote= {Bezugszeitraum: A 1968; E 1997},
   Annote= {JEL-Klassifikation: J01; J2; J31; J71; C5; C72; C13; D82},
   Annote= {Sprache: en},
   Annote= {IAB-Sign.: Z 060},
   Annote= {Quelle: IAB, SB Dokumentation und Bibliothek, LitDokAB, k120227t04},

   Journal= {Industrial Relations},
   Volume= {51},
   Number= {1},
   Author= {David W. Johnston and Wang-Sheng Lee},
   Title= {Climbing the job ladder : new evidence of gender inequity},
   Year= {2012},
   Pages= {129-151},
   ISBN= {ISSN 0019-8676},
   Abstract= {"An explanation for the gender wage gap is that women are less able or less willing to ''climb the job ladder.'' However, the empirical evidence on gender differences in job mobility has been mixed. Focusing on a subsample of younger, university-educated workers from an Australian longitudinal survey, we find strong evidence that the dynamics of promotions and employer changes worsen women's labor market position." (Author's abstract, IAB-Doku) ((en))},
   Annote= {Schlagwörter: beruflicher Aufstieg; geschlechtsspezifische Faktoren; berufliche Mobilität; Mobilitätsbarriere; Lohnunterschied; erwerbstätige Frauen; erwerbstätige Männer; Hochschulabsolventen; Beförderung; Arbeitsplatzwechsel; Australien; },
   Annote= {Bezugszeitraum: A 2001; E 2008},
   Annote= {JEL-Klassifikation: J16; J33; J71},
   Annote= {Sprache: en},
   Annote= {IAB-Sign.: Z 090},
   Annote= {Quelle: IAB, SB Dokumentation und Bibliothek, LitDokAB, k120308t03},

   Journal= {Journal of personality and social psychology},
   Volume= {102 2},
   Author= {Timothy A. Judge and Beth A. Livingston and Charlice Hurst},
   Title= {Do nice guys - and gals - really finish last? : the joint effects of sex and agreeableness an income},
   Year= {2012},
   Pages= {390-407},
   ISBN= {ISSN 0022-3514},
   Abstract= {"Sex and agreeableness were hypothesized to affect income, such that women and agreeable individuals were hypothesized to earn less than men and less agreeable individuals. Because agreeable men disconfirm (and disagreeable men confirm) conventional gender roles, agreeableness was expected to be more negatively related to income for men (i.e., the pay gap between agreeable men and agreeable women would be smaller than the gap between disagreeable men and disagreeable women). The hypotheses were supported across 4 studies. Study 1 confirmed the effects of sex and agreeableness an income and that the agreeableness - income relationship was significantly more negative for men than for women. Study 2 replicated these results, controlling for each of the other Big Five traits. Study 3 also replicated the interaction and explored explanations and paradoxes of the relationship. A 4th study, using an experimental design, yielded evidence for die argument that die joint effects of agreeableness and gender are due to backlash against agreeable men." (Author's abstract, IAB-Doku) ((en))},
   Annote= {Schlagwörter: Lohnhöhe; psychische Faktoren; geschlechtsspezifische Faktoren; Lohnunterschied; erwerbstätige Frauen; erwerbstätige Männer; Einkommenseffekte; Persönlichkeitsmerkmale; soziales Verhalten; Kooperationsbereitschaft; Sozialkapital; Rollenverhalten; Geschlechterrolle; USA; },
   Annote= {Bezugszeitraum: A 1992; E 2008},
   Annote= {Sprache: en},
   Annote= {IAB-Sign.: Z 1467},
   Annote= {Quelle: IAB, SB Dokumentation und Bibliothek, LitDokAB, k120301t09},

   Journal= {Labour Economics},
   Volume= {19},
   Number= {2},
   Author= {Astrid Kunze and Kenneth R. Troske},
   Title= {Life-cycle patterns in male/female differences in job search},
   Year= {2012},
   Pages= {176-185},
   ISBN= {ISSN 0927-5371},
   Abstract= {"We investigate whether women search longer for a job than men and whether these differences change over the life cycle. Our empirical analysis exploits German register data on highly attached displaced workers. We apply duration models to analyze gender differences in job search taking into account observed and unobserved worker heterogeneity and censoring. Simple survival functions show that displaced women take longer to find a new job than comparable men. Disaggregation by age groups reveals that these differences are driven by differential behavior of women in their prime-childbearing years. There is no significant difference in job search duration among the very young and older workers. These differential outcomes remain even after we control for differences in human capital and when unobserved heterogeneity is incorporated into the model." (Author's abstract, IAB-Doku) ((en))},
   Annote= {Schlagwörter: geschlechtsspezifische Faktoren; Arbeitsuche - Dauer; Frauen; Männer; Lohnunterschied; Arbeitslosigkeit; Lebenslauf; Humankapital; Lebensalter; Bundesrepublik Deutschland; },
   Annote= {Bezugszeitraum: A 1975; E 2001},
   Annote= {JEL-Klassifikation: J31; J63; J64; J71},
   Annote= {Sprache: en},
   Annote= {IAB-Sign.: Z 1120},
   Annote= {Quelle: IAB, SB Dokumentation und Bibliothek, LitDokAB, k120315n11},

   Journal= {Social Forces},
   Volume= {88},
   Number= {2},
   Author= {Asaf Levanon and Paula England and Paul Allison},
   Title= {Occupational feminization and pay : assessing causal dynamics using 1950 - 2000 U.S. census data},
   Year= {2009},
   Pages= {865-891},
   ISBN= {ISSN 0037-7732},
   Abstract= {"Occupations with a greater share of females pay less than those with a lower share, controlling for education and skill. This association is explained by two dominant views: devaluation and queuing. The former views the pay offered in an occupation to affect its female proportion, due to employers' preference for men - a gendered labor queue. The latter argues that the proportion of females in an occupation affects pay, owing to devaluation of work done by women. Only a few past studies used longitudinal data, which is needed to test the theories. We use fixed-effects models, thus controlling for stable characteristics of occupations, and U.S. Census data from 1950 through 2000. We find substantial evidence for the devaluation view, but only scant evidence for the queuing view." (Author's abstract, IAB-Doku) ((en))},
   Annote= {Schlagwörter: Frauenberufe; Lohnunterschied; Männerberufe; geschlechtsspezifische Faktoren; Geschlechterverteilung; Berufsgruppe; Einkommenseffekte; Lohndiskriminierung; erwerbstätige Frauen; erwerbstätige Männer; USA; },
   Annote= {Bezugszeitraum: A 1950; E 2000},
   Annote= {Sprache: en},
   Annote= {IAB-Sign.: X 260},
   Annote= {Quelle: IAB, SB Dokumentation und Bibliothek, LitDokAB, k120217r11},

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