Suchprofil: Gender_wage_gap
Durchsuchter Fertigstellungsmonat: 07/14



   Journal= {Labour Economics},
   Volume= {28},
   Number= {June},
   Author= {Elena Capatina},
   Title= {Skills and the evolution of wage inequality},
   Year= {2014},
   Pages= {41-57},
   ISBN= {ISSN 0927-5371},
   Abstract= {"This paper studies wage inequality in the United States between 1980 and 2010 in a framework that accounts for changes in the employment of physical and cognitive skills and their returns. I find that the secular rise in the employment of cognitive skills is largely accounted for by labour force composition changes in shares of gender - education groups rather than changes that occurwithin these groups. Average employed skills differ greatly across groups, but over time their average employed cognitive skills have remained approximately constant. Returns to cognitive skills increased very sharply for high skill levels, more gradually around mean levels, and decreased at low levels. Returns to physical skills generally declined. These trends account for approximately 63% of the increase in the college wage premium, with changes in returns to cognitive skills playing a dominant role." (Author's abstract, IAB-Doku) ((en))},
   Annote= {Schlagwörter: Berufsgruppe; Berufsanforderungen; berufliche Qualifikation; Lohnunterschied; Ungleichheit; kognitive Fähigkeit; körperliche Arbeit; geistige Arbeit; Qualifikation; physische Belastung; Qualifikationsanforderungen; Hochschulbildung; Bildungsertrag; geschlechtsspezifische Faktoren; Berufsstrukturwandel; Qualifikationswandel; USA; },
   Annote= {Bezugszeitraum: A 1980; E 2010},
   Annote= {JEL-Klassifikation: J0; J24; J31},
   Annote= {Sprache: en},
   Annote= {IAB-Sign.: Z 1120},
   Annote= {Quelle: IAB, SB Dokumentation und Bibliothek, LitDokAB, k140703v04},


   Institution={Forschungsinstitut zur Zukunft der Arbeit, Bonn (Hrsg.)},
   Author= {Marianne Bertrand and Sandra E. Black and Sissel Jensen and Adriana Lleras-Muney},
   Title= {Breaking the glass ceiling? : the effect of board quotas on female labor market outcomes in Norway},
   Year= {2014},
   Pages= {55},
   Address= {Bonn},
   Series= {IZA discussion paper},
   Number= {8266},
   Annote= {URL:},
   Abstract= {"In late 2003, Norway passed a law mandating 40 percent representation of each gender on the board of publicly limited liability companies. The primary objective of this reform was to increase the representation of women in top positions in the corporate sector and decrease gender disparity in earnings within that sector. We document that the newly (post-reform) appointed female board members were observably more qualified than their female predecessors, and that the gender gap in earnings within boards fell substantially. While the reform may have improved the representation of female employees at the very top of the earnings distribution (top 5 highest earners) within firms that were mandated to increase female participation on their board, there is no evidence that these gains at the very top trickled-down. Moreover the reform had no obvious impact on highly qualified women whose qualifications mirror those of board members but who were not appointed to boards. We observe no statistically significant change in the gender wage gaps or in female representation in top positions, although standard errors are large enough that we cannot rule economically meaningful gains. Finally, there is little evidence that the reform affected the decisions of women more generally; it was not accompanied by any change in female enrollment in business education programs, or a convergence in earnings trajectories between recent male and female graduates of such programs. While young women preparing for a career in business report being aware of the reform and expect their earnings and promotion chances to benefit from it, the reform did not affect their fertility and marital plans. Overall, in the short run the reform had very little discernable impact on women in business beyond its direct effect on the newly appointed female board members." (Author's abstract, IAB-Doku) ((en))},
   Annote= {Schlagwörter: Führungskräfte; Quotierung - Auswirkungen; Berufserfolg; beruflicher Aufstieg; erwerbstätige Frauen; Aktiengesellschaft; Aufsichtsrat; Vorstand; Geschlechterverteilung; Lohnunterschied; geschlechtsspezifische Faktoren; Norwegen; },
   Annote= {Bezugszeitraum: A 1986; E 2010},
   Annote= {JEL-Klassifikation: J1; J3},
   Annote= {Sprache: en},
   Annote= {Quelle: IAB, SB Dokumentation und Bibliothek, LitDokAB, k140703r05},

   Institution={Collegio Carlo Alberto, Turin (Hrsg.)},
   Author= {Margarita Estévez-Abe},
   Title= {Political economy of outsourcing of domestic work},
   Year= {2014},
   Pages= {29},
   Address= {Turin},
   Series= {Carlo Alberto notebooks},
   Number= {344},
   ISBN= {ISSN 2279-9362},
   Annote= {URL:},
   Abstract= {"This paper explores how wage inequality and the percentage of low-skill workers in the overall working age population might affect (i) the outsourcing of domestic work, and (ii) educated women's working time. More specifically, it examines if greater wage inequality and the relative scarcity of highly skilled workers in the economy increase the odds that educated women outsource their otherwise unpaid work and their time devoted to paid work. The paper carries out logit and regression analyses of 22 advanced industrial countries using the 'Family and Gender Roles III,' (International Social Survey Program, module 2002). The results show that: (i) wage inequality increases educated women's odds of working full-time and (ii) the relative abundance of low skill workers (especially when they are foreign) increases the odds of outsourcing of domestic tasks." (Author's abstract, IAB-Doku) ((en))},
   Annote= {Schlagwörter: private Haushalte; Hausarbeit - internationaler Vergleich; outsourcing - Determinanten; Dienstleistungsbereich; private Dienstleistungen - Inanspruchnahme; Beschäftigungseffekte; Hochqualifizierte; Frauenerwerbstätigkeit; soziale Ungleichheit; Niedrigqualifizierte; Preisniveau; Erwerbsverhalten; Vollzeitarbeit; Teilzeitarbeit; Lohnunterschied; Einwanderer; ausländische Arbeitnehmer; Arbeitskräfteangebot; Qualifikationsstruktur; Australien; Österreich; Belgien; Chile; Tschechische Republik; Dänemark; Finnland; Frankreich; Bundesrepublik Deutschland; Ungarn; Israel; Japan; Nordirland; Norwegen; Niederlande; Polen; Portugal; Spanien; Schweden; Schweiz; Großbritannien; USA; Ostdeutschland; Westdeutschland; },
   Annote= {Bezugszeitraum: A 2000; E 2000},
   Annote= {Sprache: en},
   Annote= {Quelle: IAB, SB Dokumentation und Bibliothek, LitDokAB, k140620r07},

   Institution={Deutsches Institut f{\"u}r Wirtschaftsforschung, Berlin (Hrsg.)},
   Author= {Elke Wolf},
   Title= {The German part-time wage gap : bad news for men?},
   Year= {2014},
   Pages= {33},
   Address= {Berlin},
   Series= {SOEPpapers on multidisciplinary panel data research at DIW Berlin},
   Number= {663},
   ISBN= {ISSN 1864-6689},
   Annote= {URL:},
   Abstract= {"Despite the increasing incidence of part-time employment in Germany, the effects on wage rates are studied rarely. I therefore use SOEP panel data from 1984 to 2010 and apply different econometric approaches and definitions of part-time work to measure the so-called part-time wage gap of both, men and women in East and West Germany. A very robust finding is that part-time working men are subject to higher wage penalties than women. Accounting for all available observed as well as time-constant unobserved individual characteristics yields a wage cut of about 10 percent in East and West Germany. Furthermore, the type of contract makes a big difference. While marginal employees earn considerable lower wage rates, irrespective of region and sex, reduced working hours covered with social security do not seem to be to the detriment of women once differences in observed characteristics are taken into account. Fixed-effects panel estimates even yield slightly benefits from working part-time. Nonetheless, long part-time spells may cause financial drawbacks for women, because experience in part-time employment generates lower or even no positive returns. Another novel of my study is the look at the part-time wage gap over the years. The empirical evidence reveals that wage differentials in West- Germany increased over time. Since this trend disappears for men, as soon as individual fixed-effects are disentangled, I suppose that selection of men with progressively unfavourable labour market characteristics triggered this downward slope. In contrast, the downtrend of the female part-time wage gap seems to be caused by the increasing share of marginal employees, who exhibit a significant and larger wage cut compared to standard part-time women." (Author's abstract, IAB-Doku) ((en))},
   Annote= {Schlagwörter: Lohnunterschied; Teilzeitarbeitnehmer; geschlechtsspezifische Faktoren; erwerbstätige Frauen; erwerbstätige Männer; regionaler Vergleich; Lohnentwicklung; Teilzeitarbeit; Einkommenseffekte; Berufsverlauf; Bundesrepublik Deutschland; Ostdeutschland; Westdeutschland; },
   Annote= {Bezugszeitraum: A 1984; E 2010},
   Annote= {JEL-Klassifikation: J22; J24; J31},
   Annote= {Sprache: en},
   Annote= {Quelle: IAB, SB Dokumentation und Bibliothek, LitDokAB, k140624r09},

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